What is the most common or dangerous geologic hazard in your region? Can you name the nearest Volcano to Bellingham, WA? We enlist the help of WWU’s own Dr. Jackie Caplan-Auerbach and students on campus to answers these questions. We also talk about Dr. Caplan-Auerbach’s research on underwater volcanoes which involved the recent eruptions in Hawaii. Don’t worry, we still bring up some pop culture, which includes commentary on the 1997 movie Dante’s Peak).
Photo of Shishaldin Volcano by Pete Stelling
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(Dr. Regina) Hey Spark Science listeners, we are back from our long hiatus and we’ve got a new season, new format, and new stories for you. Do you like volcanoes? I know you do. Maybe you like earthquakes. I don’t, but guess what? We have our own Dr. Caplan-Auerbach who was a volcanologist, seismologist, and friend of the show. She’s here today to talk about underwater volcanoes, earthquakes in Alaska, and the accuracy of the 1997 film Dante’s Peak. We invite you to sit back, relax, and enjoy our first interview of season 5.
Welcome to Spark Science where we share stories of human curiosity. I’m your host Regina Barber DeGraaff, I teach physics here at Western Washington University. I’m an astrophysicist and I love pop culture. I’m here today with a friend of the show, our third guest ever, Dr. Jackie Caplan-Auerbach. She is a seismologist, volcanologist and she teaches geology here at Western. Thank you for coming back.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) It’s my total pleasure. It’s great to be back.
(Dr. Regina) I wanted to talk today about current events. The volcano that just exploded and erupted in Hawaii, the big earthquake in Alaska, but before we go into that stuff I want to let you tell us what you do here at here at Western.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) I’m on the facility in the geology department. My research focuses as you said on sort of hazards, volcanoes and earthquakes. I particularly study the earthquakes that take place within volcanic systems. I also study earthquakes that are associated with land sliding. I do some marine geophysics so, I’m kind of a hazards junkie in general. That’s kind of the bulk of the directions I go.
I would say that if I’m on an airplane and someone asked me that question, if I want to talk to them I’ll tell them I’m a volcanologist and if I don’t want to talk I’ll tell them that I’m a geophysicist. It’s all true, it just depends on how I want to present myself because there’s a variety of options. When we think of geology, the geo of course is Earth and of course this is the use of physics to study it. Honestly, I’m a physicist by trade far more than I’m a geologist.
(Dr. Regina) That’s why we get along.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) That’s why we get along for many reasons. I have actually never taken a single class in Earth science before my PhD. My whole background was physics and in fact astrophysics. The difference is that once I was using my physics, the questions I had that I wanted to answer through research were about the planet.
Geophysics can be anytime that you use that and that could be the kind of work that I do in hazards, that could be the questions that people ask about the deep earth, about the Earth’s core, about the Earth’s mantle, it could have to do with plate tectonics, it could be questions of, if we build a road here is this cliff going to fail? It has to do with the strength and integrity of rock and it has to do with consulting, it has to do with resource extraction and how we know where to find resources. It’s very wide. My particular side of it of course is just the hazards.
(Dr. Regina) When you were talking about this idea of kind of asking the new questions, what was we of the first new questions that you saw?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) You know, I went into it so cluelessly that I actually have, I was going to say a vivid memory but that’s not simply at that stage any memory counts.
(Dr. Regina) Memory of a memory.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Exactly. The essay I wrote when I applied to grad school, I very specifically said, I don’t know what the questions are that are unasked. For me it’s all new so I don’t know what direction I want to go because I don’t know what we know and don’t know. I wound up studying the thing that was very exciting to me, the idea of studying the oceans and studying the hazards associated with them. I wanted live my life on the water and it was sort of a revelation to me that there was such a thing is marine geophysics.
The things that were interesting were tsunamis and earthquakes and then I actually went on a hike up on Mount St. Helens. I got to the top of Mount St. Helens and it was this mind boggling sense of the planet’s power. I thought, “This is it, I’m going to study undersea volcanoes and the earthquakes they produce and how they caused tsunamis.” I didn’t know if there were undersea volcanoes because I had never studied it. Truly, by dumb luck, I found an advisor at the University of Hawaii who was about to put down seismometers on an undersea volcano. It was like, ah! It all fell together.
My first questions were related to the structure of the undersea volcano. I also by dumb luck was working, studying its historical earthquakes that we had recorded there. The day I started that project it busted out in this huge earthquake swarm.
(Dr. Regina) What is an earthquake swarm?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Thank you! Good question. Commonly in earthquakes we get a main shock and after shock sequence. So, you get a large earthquake and then the planet needs to kind of settle, it keeps adjusting, and that’s the long prolonged after shock sequence. Swarms are where you get many, many, many, many earthquakes. Not one really large one to start. They may have a wide variety of sizes but mostly they’re smaller and they just kind of pop off kind of like popping popcorn.
(Dr. Regina) It’s not associated with the settling, it’s associated with some other . . .
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) That’s right and they’re pretty common in volcanic environments. There I was trying to learn about this volcano and it presented me with this lovely swarm. I was, at the time, working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, just sort of volunteering there when I was doing my PhD. The seismologist there was kind enough to say, “Why don’t you work on this, we’re going to give you these data, that can be your project.” It turned out to be, at the time, the largest swarm of earthquakes that had ever been recorded in Hawaii.
And it was associated with an eruption, and a crater collapse at the summit. This is a volcano called L??ihi, it’s a small, in a relative sense in Hawaii. It’s actually bigger than Mt. Baker if we look at it here but it’s all under water so you can’t see it in Hawaii, it’s that small. So it had this eruption, it had a magma reservoir that drained and caused the collapse of a pit crater at the summit, but we had to kind of see it all without looking because it’s all underwater.
What’s so much fun now, is that it’s a really lovely little analogue to the activity that we just saw on Kilauea this year where there was an eruption that happened down on the rift of the volcano where there was this collapse of the summit. In that case, in truly spectacular form, I feel that I’ve sort of bookended my Kilauea study or my volcano studies with these two things. It’s pretty cool.
(Dr. Regina) How do you actually then study these events. You’re saying it’s all under water. What are you actually looking at? You send cameras down there, I know you watch the discovery channel and see all of the underwater submarines and the ones that are more drone like, how do you do that?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) It really depends, again, on who you are and what type of science you do. We talked about what geophysics is. Volcanology is equally broad. There are volcanologists like me who study physics. There are volcanologists that study the chemistry. There are volcanologists that study the gases. There are people who map the volcanoes. All of those different things could be applied to the volcano including the underwater ones. When you see those extraordinary videos, and there really now are these just beautiful high def videos of people exploring them, sadly I don’t really get to do that because I don’t need images for my worked.
(Dr. Regina) It’s all seismology right?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Yeah. But that is an incredibly important piece of the puzzle. My piece of the puzzle is, yeah, put seismometers on these volcanoes and on the bottom of the ocean.
(Dr. Regina) Because you can’t put it on them right? Because then the material would get messed up?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Oh, we do for sure. It’s, depending on what the volcano is doing, that can be problematic. In fact, the project I did this summer, one of our instruments didn’t come back and there’s a chance that it’s part of the volcano now. I actually suspect there was another problem with that. We don’t really know. It just didn’t come back to us.
(Dr. Regina) This equipment is basically made so it can withstand a lot of . . .
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) It’s not going to withstand a lot of flow. There have been examples of lava covering or flowing near underwater on these seismometers. There’s a great example of one out here off of Oregon, about 20 years ago now, that the lava flowed and it kind of went almost under the instrument and then just picked it up and lifted it and then sank and put it back down. The instrument outside of having to be kind of chipped out, came back to the surface just fine recording its data.
(Dr. Regina) Oh my gosh!
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) We hope not to do that.
(Dr. Regina) But that’s a great story.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) It was amazing. [Laughing.] We drop them and we literally take them aboard a ship and we go to the place where we want to have the instrument and we literally just drop and it falls to the sea floor. Then, we have to know where it is. Seismology requires that you know exactly where your instrument is and exactly what time it recorded a signal. So we sail around it, we motor around it, we kind of ping to it and it pings back.
(Dr. Regina) What radius is that?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Do depends on how deep the water is. In the case of the project we did on Kilauea this summer, we deployed the instruments in July and then we came, actually another group of scientists came back and retrieved the instruments for us in September, they go and ping to them.
They basically call to the instrument and say, “Hey, it’s time to come back up.” These seismometers carry a heavy weight with them. That’s what makes them negatively buoyant so they can sink. They sit on the sea floor because of that weight. We ping to them we say, “Drop your weights. Drop your weights.” It send a little signal that causes it to basically burn through the wire that holds the weight on.
As soon as that burns through, it disconnects and now it is positively buoyant and it just rises up to the surface. We all stand on deck and look for it. It’s got this day glow pink orange flag. It’s got a light just in case this happens at night. We wait for it to come up and then we go get it.
(Dr. Regina) We’re going to take a break, we’ll be right back.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Great.
>> Can you name a volcano for us?
>> Um, Baker?
>> Mt. Rainier.
>> Mount St. Helens is kinda close, I guess Mt. Baker is a volcano right?
>> Mt. Baker is a volcano isn’t it?
>> We have Mt. Rainier, Mount St. Helens.
>> Mt. Baker.
>> Mount St. Helens.
(Dr. Regina) Welcome back to Spark Science. We’re here talking to Dr. Jackie Caplan-Auerbach. We were just talking about the recent eruptions in Hawaii and your study. Basically you taking students there and studying it. Can you take me through the timeline? I’d like to hear, it erupts, you’re like, “Oh my gosh.” What happens next?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) I have to be honest. I erupted and I thought, “That was really cool.” But I was kind of slow to realize that there was something that I could do. Thankfully I have a colleague at Rice University, Dr. Julie Morgan who called me up and said, “Is anyone putting bottom ocean seismometers on this?” I thought, “Holy heck, why am I not doing this?” Julie and I worked together in this area back in 1998. We sort of knew each other from the project offshore Kilauea. We talked about it and thought, “We should do this, we should try to organize this thing.”
There’s something at the National Science Foundation called a rapid response proposal. They have a small sum of money that is set aside for, hey I need it now. Most proposals take years to get going, years to develop, and years to get instrumentation. This is a pool of money ready to go because we had these three organizations that were interested in different aspects of the same story.
We wrote to NSF and there’s sort of a back and forth about if they would let us write this proposal and they did. They we’re kind enough to fund it.
(Dr. Regina) How long after the eruption did this happen?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) The eruption, I should point out that Kilauea has been erupting since 1983 continuously.
(Dr. Regina) That’s very important to know.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) This was just a very dramatic shift that took place really starting around the end of April, 2018, this year. The change in where it actually began to erupt is when it moved from an area called Pu’u Pua’i to what’s called Leilani estates, which is a populated subdivision. It started erupting out of Leilani Estates on May 3rd. On May 4th there was a very large earthquake. There was a magnitude 6.9 earthquake on the flank. The flank by which I mean the southern kind of half of Kilauea. That was the thing that really captured our interest.
I think it was probably really June by the time we got it together to reach out to the NSF. Happily there was another cruise also doing ocean bottom seismology in Hawaii. I wanted to point out the amazing thing that made our project happen because I think it really speaks to the extraordinary community that is science.
Here we were, begging for instruments and trying to find things and Dr. Donna Shillington from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, which is Columbia University, she was leading this cruise that was supposed to go out of Hawaii in august. There was this big question about really, do we go out there and spend this money to get a month of data if she’s going to need these instruments? We had a conference call and Donna said, “Why don’t I delay my cruise a month. We’ll go in September.
We’ll just hold the whole thing off so you guys can get more data. You use my instruments and I’ll use them after that. I’ll pick them up for you.” Without that generosity, this project wouldn’t have happened. I really think, sometimes we hear about fighting in academia and science, or my data/your data, I just think that was really a testament to how much we truly care about answering these questions, not just our publication records.
(Dr. Regina) So they’re called cruises, these science endeavors are called cruises.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) They are called cruises. It’s a very different cruise than you might expect but it’s more fun. You plan these things out to the hour so you’re not wasting any money. I planned all of our transit for us to sail at 10 knots. One of the engines kept going offline if we went too fast so we could only go at 5 knots when the weather was up. We were at high seas, everybody was sick, and occasionally the ship was like [makes a squeaking noise] banking to starboard. But it all worked. It all worked, it was fabulous. Everyone came together.
I brought students, I brought two students. Julian Young each brought a student. I was raised scientifically to never leave the bunk empty at sea. If you have space for someone to come who is learning about science, then you fill it with a student. We had a wonderful crew of 7 students who came along with.
(Dr. Regina) I have talked to a few of them and they just had a great time.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) We all had a great time. They were amazing. They didn’t know if they were going to get sea sick, they didn’t know about the instrumentation, we had science meetings every night, we’d talk about what we were doing, we’d talk about the science, wonderful technical and engineering support to train them. By the end of it we’d say, “It’s time to launch this instrument” and boom, they would go out there and work this instrument, and that one, and tie off these lines, and lower the Straza Tower, and get on radio, work the lines, it was awesome to see. They were really, really a great group.
(Dr. Regina) Let’s take a break and come back to talk about earthquakes and maybe more cruises.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Sounds great.
>> When you think of geological hazards, earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, what do you think you are most likely to be effected by?
>> Um, I think that we are most likely to be effected by an earthquake just because I’ve been hearing about the big one that this area is supposed to get for so many years.
>> Here, I would say the landslides. Because we have the hills up here and it’s a big issue with landslides coming down into our area.
>> We’re most likely to be effected by earthquakes, I know we live on a fault, the Juan De Fuca fault.
>> Mud slides and rockslides that happen after a large rain usually effect getting home because I take the train to get home.
>> Earthquakes because of the Nisqually earthquake we had in 2001.
>> I think living here in Washington is probably earthquakes. Maybe volcanic eruptions but that’s kind of connected to the same tectonic pressure.
>> Earthquakes because we’re on the Pacific Rim.
>> Here everybody talks about the big earthquake.
>> Probably landslides because the volcano is kind of far from us and an earthquake might happen, a really big one.
(Dr. Regina) Welcome back to Spark Science. We’re talking to hazards junkie Dr. Jackie Caplan-Auerbach. We were going to talk about the current earthquake in Alaska. Before we do, I want to talk about the cruses a little more.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) I’m convinced that everybody has some frequency of rocking that will do them in. So, somebody tells you they don’t get sea sick, they haven’t been on the right boat yet.
(Dr. Regina) It’s a residence frequency right?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) I think it is. But, some people are genuinely more prone to it than others. I’ve been very lucky in my life to not have had a whole lot of that. For example, this cruse, we had high seas. It was pretty rough for the transit over. Actually for a good portion of what we did. The way we work on the ships, we work 24/7 so there are various shifts that people may work. The way we did it, we had one of the three chief scientists, myself, Julie and Young working 8 here shifts.
The students worked 4 hours on 8 hours off twice a day. They would work the 12-4 watch am and pm, the 4-8 watch, etc. They always had people rotating shifts. That means that you always miss one meal depending on what your schedule is. We had a shift, we had the chief steward, John, on this cruse, and he had a sidekick the Sous-Chef. They’re up at 4 in the morning making breakfast for us so we would have a . . .
(Dr. Regina) They’re working all day.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) They’re working all day.
(Dr. Regina) While we were in, I believe, while I was on this cruise I heard about this earthquake. I’m like, in the Caribbean and I hear this news about a giant earthquake that happened in Alaska. What was the discussion about the physics of that or the geophysics of that and maybe other hazards you can talk about since that’s your field?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Totally. The first thing to point at is on the one hand, there’s a lot of reasons to call this a giant earthquake. The experience of this for the people who lived there was terrifying. It was really a very frightening experience.
(Dr. Regina) There’s pictures of these giant cracks.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) That’s right. It caused some damage. In the grand scheme of things, this was not a giant earthquake. This was a magnitude 7, a 7.0 earthquake. In 1964 Alaska actually, a really similar area, the Anchorage area, experienced the second largest earthquake ever recorded, which was a magnitude 9.2. That’s well over a thousand times greater than this earthquake.
So, when we talk about giant, it has different meaning to the experience and to the fundamental size of the event. I say that only because Alaska has this really substantial seismic hazard because of earthquakes like that one in 1964. The good side of that is that Alaska is very well prepared for it. That doesn’t mean that individually we are prepared enough to not be frightened and there is really no way to do that. It’s a terrifying thing when the ground shakes. But, it does mean that the infrastructure in Alaska is built with that understanding. It’s going to shake. It’s going to shake a lot, potentially for a long time.
Consequently, despite all of those images we saw or videos, we say of cracks in the ground and cars that were in the holes in the freeway and damage to homes and what not, really, the city of anchorage and those surrounding cities did incredibly well. They did really, really well. There were no deaths to my knowledge.
(Dr. Regina) I didn’t hear of any either.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) I didn’t hear of any injuries or any substantial injuries. I could be wrong about that.
(Dr. Regina) That’s pretty lucky.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) You know, it’s lucky but it’s planning. I think that’s incredibly important. Particularly for those of us in areas that have not seen a big earthquake in a long time. There are videos of schools in Alaska and you see the lecture going on and you see everyone kind of jerk because they felt the P wave or they felt the first shaking and boom! All of those students go under their desks. They do exactly what we hope they’ll do.
[Clanking metallic sounds]
They do that and you watch the shaking build as the S waves come in and as it’s prolonged. They are holding. We say hold on so you’re not actually sliding, keeping that desk over your head. They did everything right, all the planning up to this event, which included building codes.
The number one thing we need to ensure, I always tell my students, no one gets shaken to death in an earthquake. No one dies from an earthquake, people die because buildings fall on them or tsunamis. That’s the other big hazard. In this case this was not a tsunami genic or an earthquake that generates a wave.
When we get through one and do well we have to remember that, that was by design. It wasn’t luck, it wasn’t that we’re fine and we’re done. Particularly here in the Pacific Northwest, we’ve got a lot of work to do. We’ve got a lot of seismic retrofit that needs to be done. After this earthquake in Anchorage, the next day, my husband and I went around the house and anchored all of our furniture to the house. We still had bookshelves that we’d been just lax about dealing with. It was $5. It was 20 minutes. It was the easiest fix in the world. So all ya’ll, whatever camera we have, go do this. There are such simple things that we can do to proper.
My hope is that if and when the big one hits, I want emergency services to go to someone else, not to me. I want to make sure that I’m prepared and I don’t need that and they can go, that I have that knowledge, it’s incumbent on me to use it, to make sure that others who are less experienced and knowledgeable about it are able to prepare and get the help they need. Let me take care of myself.
I bolted my house to the foundation. Well I didn’t do it, I hired somebody, to bold my house to the foundation. My house was built in 1900. We had no idea there were earthquakes then. My furniture is now bolted down. We have a good preparedness kit that we renew every year. Not because I’m paranoid. I really don’t feel particularly paranoid about earthquakes. But how embarrassed I would be as a seismologist, I chunked it right? I mean, if the big one hits, it’s like, “Oh that jerk down the street, she’s the one whose house walked off its foundation.”
I also think we don’t have a great sense in this area of what our hazards are. We’re really sacred by volcanoes and we’re really sacred by earthquakes. Landslides are such a more common issue here. And really, what’s likely to get you? The flu! You know, our sense of danger is off.
(Dr. Regina) Our suggestion to our viewers and listeners is to be prepared. Do some research. Let’s end on a high note. What movie should they watch for good geophysics and what movie should they watch for terrible geophysics.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) OK. The second question is so much easier. It really depends. In volcano land, in the world of what do you want to know about volcanoes, Dante’s Peak is pretty good. Dante’s Peak is actually a pretty good movie.
(Dr. Regina) I think we’ve talked about this in a previous show.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) We may have. There are two major flaws in Dante’s Peak. A lot of things happen too fast.
(Dr. Regina) That’s all movies right? Even trials don’t happen that fast, and like, law and order, right?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Totally. [Laughing.] People fall into this acid lake and their skin falls off really rapidly. Unlikely. There are actually two other big issues with Dante’s Peak. There is a pyroclastic flow [rumbling sounds] an explosive eruption that causes this rock and ash flow and then in the middle of that you see this lava, this Pahoehoe lava.
[“That’s a fantastic cloud” rumbling]
The USGS guy is driving this incredibly spiffy SUV with like a snorkel and all of that. When I was at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory as a grad student, we had army surplus things where nothing on the dashboard worked and the lights didn’t work, in that he has to hot wire the car. Everyone in the USGS knows where to find the key. I’m not going to tell you but there’s no hot-wiring needed.
(Dr. Regina) He’s probably in there already.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Outside of that, it’s pretty good. Actually, all of the stories in Dante’s Peak are modeled after real eruptions, Mount St. Helens, Mt. Pinatubo, so the lahars, the mud flows are very St. Helens like. A lot of the stories about how the systems progress are Pinatubo. Those are real and it’s pretty good. It’s pretty good.
(Dr. Regina) Bad ones?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Like all the rest.
(Dr. Regina) Like The Core?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) The Core is terrible.
(Dr. Regina) San Andreas?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Oh, San Andreas.
(Dr. Regina) But, they’re entertaining movies.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Yeah. San Andreas at least, the tsunami was ridiculous, totally wrong, way too big, San Andreas’ fault is not going to produce that kind of tsunami, wrong kind of earthquake. It had multiple waves and that’s often lost on people. Tsunami is a series of waves, not a single wave.
(Dr. Regina) You shouldn’t go back when you have a tsunami warning. Stay up. Go to the higher ground.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Absolutely. It could be 24 hours that you still have sloshing.
(Dr. Regina) Go to the cabin. Stay there.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Go up high, totally. A really really bad one is Volcano. A volcano comes out of the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles.
(Dr. Regina) Wait, there’s a movie just called Volcano?
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Oh yeah! The sub line is, “The coast is toast.” It’s just awesomely bad. It’s so, so awesomely bad. [Laughing.] It brings all of the Los Angeles communities together. I shouldn’t tell the whole thing if people are going to watch it. Regardless of our racial and socioeconomic issues, a volcano in the middle of Los Angeles would bring us all together.
(Dr. Regina) A volcano is our common enemy.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) It’s pretty great.
(Dr. Regina) Great, good. It kind of takes the place of aliens in a sci-fi movie.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Actually Tremors is the seismologist’s favorite. Where, one of the heroes and a seismologist and she can track where they are because they are traveling underground and she has seismometers that show where they are shaking and she can get their locations.
(Dr. Regina) So that’s what you’ll be doing when that happens.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Oh Yeah.
(Dr. Regina) Well thank you for talking to me. I’m actually going to go watch all of those movies.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) We’ll sit and have some popcorn together.
(Dr. Regina) We’ll have Melissa there and my kid and it will be the greatest.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) Thank you.
(Dr. Regina) I’m going to shake your hand.
(Dr. Caplan-Auerbach) My pleasure.
(Dr. Regina) Thank you so much.
We’d like to thank Dr. Jackie Caplan-Auerbach for coming back on the show. Clip from Tremors, courtesy of Universal Pictures, 1990. Clip from Dante’s Peak, curtsy of universal pictures, 1997. If you are interested in watching a video version of this interview, go to Sparksciencenow.com. Spark Science is sponsored by WWU and created in partnership with KMRE.
Spark Science is recorded on location in Bellingham Washington at Western Washington University. The producers are Suzanne Blaze, Regina Barber-DeGraaff, and Robert Clark. Student editors are Julia Thorpe, Andrea Nordin, and Sarah Cokely. Additional editing is done by WWU video services. If there’s a science idea that you’re curious about, post a message on our Facebook page or tweet us @sparksciencenow. Thanks for joining us and if you want to listen to past episodes, visit sparkscience now.com.
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